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The Gemara originated in two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Palestine and Babylonia. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud. It was compiled sometime during the 4th century in Palestine.

According to critical scholars , the Torah consists of inconsistent texts edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts.

After Solomon's reign, the nation split into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judah in the south.

The Kingdom of Judah continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BCE, destroying the First Temple that was at the center of ancient Jewish worship.

The Judean elite was exiled to Babylonia and this is regarded as the first Jewish Diaspora. Later many of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity.

A new Second Temple was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed. During the early years of the Second Temple, the highest religious authority was a council known as the Great Assembly, led by Ezra of the Book of Ezra.

Among other accomplishments of the Great Assembly, the last books of the Bible were written at this time and the canon sealed.

Hadrian built a pagan idol on the Temple grounds and prohibited circumcision; these acts of ethnocide provoked the Bar Kokhba revolt — CE after which the Romans banned the study of the Torah and the celebration of Jewish holidays, and forcibly removed virtually all Jews from Judea.

In CE, however, Jews were granted Roman citizenship and Judaism was recognized as a religio licita "legitimate religion" until the rise of Gnosticism and Early Christianity in the fourth century.

Following the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, prayer took the place of sacrifice, and worship was rebuilt around the community represented by a minimum of ten adult men and the establishment of the authority of rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities see Jewish diaspora.

After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, these sects vanished. The Sadducees rejected the divine inspiration of the Prophets and the Writings , relying only on the Torah as divinely inspired.

Consequently, a number of other core tenets of the Pharisees' belief system which became the basis for modern Judaism , were also dismissed by the Sadducees.

The Samaritans practiced a similar religion, which is traditionally considered separate from Judaism. Like the Sadducees who relied only on the Torah, some Jews in the 8th and 9th centuries rejected the authority and divine inspiration of the oral law as recorded in the Mishnah and developed by later rabbis in the two Talmuds , relying instead only upon the Tanakh.

These included the Isunians, the Yudganites, the Malikites , and others. They soon developed oral traditions of their own, which differed from the rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Karaite sect.

Karaites exist in small numbers today, mostly living in Israel. Rabbinical and Karaite Jews each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous.

Many of these groups have developed differences in their prayers, traditions and accepted canons; however, these distinctions are mainly the result of their being formed at some cultural distance from normative rabbinic Judaism, rather than based on any doctrinal dispute.

Antisemitism arose during the Middle Ages , in the form of persecutions, pogroms , forced conversions , expulsions, social restrictions and ghettoization.

This was different in quality from the repressions of Jews which had occurred in ancient times. Ancient repressions were politically motivated and Jews were treated the same as members of other ethnic groups.

With the rise of the Churches, the main motive for attacks on Jews changed from politics to religion and the religious motive for such attacks was specifically derived from Christian views about Jews and Judaism.

It originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people when European Jews had turned inward to Talmud study; many felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too "academic", and that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy.

Its adherents favored small and informal gatherings called Shtiebel , which, in contrast to a traditional synagogue, could be used both as a place of worship and for celebrations involving dancing, eating, and socializing.

Unlike other religions, which typically expanded through word of mouth or by use of print, Hasidism spread largely owing to Tzadiks , who used their influence to encourage others to follow the movement.

Hasidism appealed to many Europeans because it was easy to learn, did not require full immediate commitment, and presented a compelling spectacle.

Waves of Jewish immigration in the s carried it to the United States. The movement itself claims to be nothing new, but a refreshment of original Judaism.

As some have put it: "they merely re-emphasized that which the generations had lost". Nevertheless, early on there was a serious schism between Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews.

European Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement were dubbed by the Hasidim as Misnagdim , lit. Some of the reasons for the rejection of Hasidic Judaism were the exuberance of Hasidic worship, its deviation from tradition in ascribing infallibility and miracles to their leaders, and the concern that it might become a messianic sect.

Over time differences between the Hasidim and their opponents have slowly diminished and both groups are now considered part of Haredi Judaism. In the late 18th century CE, Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews access to secular education and experience.

A parallel Jewish movement, Haskalah or the "Jewish Enlightenment", began, especially in Central Europe and Western Europe, in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms.

It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge through reason. With the promise of political emancipation, many Jews saw no reason to continue to observe Jewish law and increasing numbers of Jews assimilated into Christian Europe.

Modern religious movements of Judaism all formed in reaction to this trend. In Central Europe, followed by Great Britain and the United States, Reform or Liberal Judaism developed, relaxing legal obligations especially those that limited Jewish relations with non-Jews , emulating Protestant decorum in prayer, and emphasizing the ethical values of Judaism's Prophetic tradition.

Modern Orthodox Judaism developed in reaction to Reform Judaism, by leaders who argued that Jews could participate in public life as citizens equal to Christians while maintaining the observance of Jewish law.

Meanwhile, in the United States, wealthy Reform Jews helped European scholars, who were Orthodox in practice but critical and skeptical in their study of the Bible and Talmud, to establish a seminary to train rabbis for immigrants from Eastern Europe.

These left-wing Orthodox rabbis were joined by right-wing Reform rabbis who felt that Jewish law should not be entirely abandoned, to form the Conservative movement.

After massive movements of Jews following The Holocaust and the creation of the state of Israel , these movements have competed for followers from among traditional Jews in or from other countries.

Jewish religious practice varies widely through all levels of observance. According to the edition of the National Jewish Population Survey , in the United States' Jewish community—the world's second largest—4.

Birth rates for American Jews have dropped from 2. Due to intermarriage and low birth rates, the Jewish population in the US shrank from 5.

This is indicative of the general population trends among the Jewish community in the Diaspora , but a focus on total population obscures growth trends in some denominations and communities, such as Haredi Judaism.

The Baal teshuva movement is a movement of Jews who have "returned" to religion or become more observant. Christianity was originally a sect of Second Temple Judaism , but the two religions diverged in the first century.

The differences between Christianity and Judaism originally centered on whether Jesus was the Jewish Messiah but eventually became irreconcilable.

Major differences between the two faiths include the nature of the Messiah, of atonement and sin , the status of God's commandments to Israel, and perhaps most significantly of the nature of God himself.

Due to these differences, Judaism traditionally regards Christianity as Shituf or worship of the God of Israel which is not monotheistic.

Christianity has traditionally regarded Judaism as obsolete with the invention of Christianity and Jews as a people replaced by the Church, though a Christian belief in dual-covenant theology emerged as a phenomenon following Christian reflection on how their theology influenced the Nazi Holocaust.

We decree that no Christian shall use violence to force them to be baptized, so long as they are unwilling and refuse. Until their emancipation in the late 18th and the 19th century, Jews in Christian lands were subject to humiliating legal restrictions and limitations.

They included provisions requiring Jews to wear specific and identifying clothing such as the Jewish hat and the yellow badge , restricting Jews to certain cities and towns or in certain parts of towns ghettos , and forbidding Jews to enter certain trades for example selling new clothes in medieval Sweden.

Disabilities also included special taxes levied on Jews, exclusion from public life, restraints on the performance of religious ceremonies, and linguistic censorship.

Some countries went even further and completely expelled Jews, for example, England in Jews were readmitted in and Spain in readmitted in The first Jewish settlers in North America arrived in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam in ; they were forbidden to hold public office, open a retail shop, or establish a synagogue.

When the colony was seized by the British in Jewish rights remained unchanged, but by Asser Levy was the first Jew to serve on a jury in North America.

Emancipation of the Jews in the United Kingdom was achieved in after an almost year struggle championed by Isaac Lyon Goldsmid [] with the ability of Jews to sit in parliament with the passing of the Jews Relief Act The newly created German Empire in abolished Jewish disabilities in Germany, which were reinstated in the Nuremberg Laws in Jewish life in Christian lands was marked by frequent blood libels , expulsions, forced conversions and massacres.

Religious prejudice was an underlying source against Jews in Europe. Christian rhetoric and antipathy towards Jews developed in the early years of Christianity and was reinforced by ever increasing anti-Jewish measures over the ensuing centuries.

The action taken by Christians against Jews included acts of violence, and murder culminating in the Holocaust. Pope John Paul II and the Catholic Church have "upheld the Church's acceptance of the continuing and permanent election of the Jewish people" as well as a reaffirmation of the covenant between God and the Jews.

Both Judaism and Islam track their origins from the patriarch Abraham , and they are therefore considered Abrahamic religions.

In both Jewish and Muslim tradition, the Jewish and Arab peoples are descended from the two sons of Abraham— Isaac and Ishmael , respectively.

While both religions are monotheistic and share many commonalities, they differ based on the fact that Jews do not consider Jesus or Muhammad to be prophets.

The religions' adherents have interacted with each other since the 7th century when Islam originated and spread in the Arabian peninsula. Non-Muslim monotheists living in these countries, including Jews, were known as dhimmis.

Dhimmis were allowed to practice their own religions and administer their own internal affairs, but they were subject to certain restrictions that were not imposed on Muslims.

For example, dhimmis in some countries were required to wear distinctive clothing , a practice not found in either the Qur'an or the hadiths but invented in early medieval Baghdad and inconsistently enforced.

At times, Jews were also restricted in their choice of residence—in Morocco , for example, Jews were confined to walled quarters mellahs beginning in the 15th century and increasingly since the early 19th century.

In the midth century, Jews were expelled from nearly all of the Arab countries. Today, antisemitic themes including Holocaust denial have become commonplace in the propaganda of Islamic movements such as Hizbullah and Hamas , in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iran , and even in the newspapers and other publications of Refah Partisi.

There are some movements that combine elements of Judaism with those of other religions. The most well-known of these is Messianic Judaism , a religious movement, which arose in the s, [] [] [] [] that incorporates elements of Judaism with the tenets of Christianity.

Other examples of syncretism include Semitic neopaganism , a loosely organized sect which incorporates pagan or Wiccan beliefs with some Jewish religious practices; Jewish Buddhists , another loosely organized group that incorporates elements of Asian spirituality in their faith; and some Renewal Jews who borrow freely and openly from Buddhism , Sufism , Native American religions, and other faiths.

The Kabbalah Centre , which employs teachers from multiple religions, is a New Age movement that claims to popularize the kabbalah , part of the Jewish esoteric tradition.

See also Torah database for links to more Judaism e-texts. Text study projects at Wikisource. In many instances, the Hebrew versions of these projects are more fully developed than the English.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Jewish religion. For consideration of ethnic, historic and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity, see Jews.

The ethnic religion of the Jewish people. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Important figures. Religious roles.

Culture and education. Ritual objects. Major holidays. Other religions. Related topics. Main article: Jewish principles of faith. I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is One, and that there is no unity in any manner like His, and that He alone is our God, who was, and is, and will be.

I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, has no body, and that He is free from all the properties of matter, and that there can be no physical comparison to Him whatsoever.

I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the first and the last. I believe with perfect faith that to the Creator, Blessed be His Name, and to Him alone, it is right to pray, and that it is not right to pray to any being besides Him.

I believe with perfect faith that all the words of the prophets are true. I believe with perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses our teacher, peace be upon him , was true, and that he was the chief of the prophets, both those who preceded him and those who followed him.

I believe with perfect faith that the entire Torah that is now in our possession is the same that was given to Moses our teacher, peace be upon him.

I believe with perfect faith that this Torah will not be exchanged and that there will never be any other Torah from the Creator, Blessed be His Name.

I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, knows all the deeds of human beings and all their thoughts, as it is written, "Who fashioned the hearts of them all, Who comprehends all their actions" Psalms I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, rewards those who keep His commandments and punishes those that transgress them.

I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah ; and even though he may tarry, nonetheless, I wait every day for his coming. I believe with perfect faith that there will be a revival of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, Blessed be His name, and His mention shall be exalted for ever and ever.

Main article: Halakha. Main article: Jewish philosophy. A law that clearly expresses the purpose it was meant to serve will also apply to other situations where the identical purpose may be served.

When a general rule is followed by illustrative particulars, only those particulars are to be embraced by it. A law that begins with specifying particular cases, and then proceeds to an all-embracing generalization, is to be applied to particulars cases not specified but logically falling into the same generalization.

A law that begins with a generalization as to its intended applications, then continues with the specification of particular cases, and then concludes with a restatement of the generalization, can be applied only to the particular cases specified.

The rules about a generalization being followed or preceded by specifying particulars rules 4 and 5 will not apply if it is apparent that the specification of the particular cases or the statement of the generalization is meant purely for achieving a greater clarity of language.

A particular case already covered in a generalization that is nevertheless treated separately suggests that the same particularized treatment be applied to all other cases which are covered in that generalization.

A penalty specified for a general category of wrongdoing is not to be automatically applied to a particular case that is withdrawn from the general rule to be specifically prohibited, but without any mention of the penalty.

A general prohibition followed by a specified penalty may be followed by a particular case, normally included in the generalization, with a modification in the penalty, either toward easing it or making it more severe.

A case logically falling into a general law but treated separately remains outside the provisions of the general law except in those instances where it is specifically included in them.

Obscurities in Biblical texts may be cleared up from the immediate context or from subsequently occurring passages Contradictions in Biblical passages may be removed through the mediation of other passages.

Main article: Who is a Jew? Main article: Jewish population by country. Main article: Jewish religious movements.

Main article: Religion in Israel. Main article: Jewish ethics. Main article: Jewish services. Further information: Jewish religious clothing , kippah , tzitzit , and tefillin.

Main article: Jewish holiday. Main article: Shabbat. Main article: Shalosh regalim. Main article: High Holidays. Main article: Purim.

Main article: Hanukkah. Main article: Torah reading. Main article: Synagogue. Main article: Kashrut. Main article: Tumah. Main article: Niddah.

Main article: Jewish history. This section is about the history of Judaism. For the book on Ancient Judaism, see Ancient Judaism book.

Main article: Origins of Judaism. Further information: Ancient Canaanite religion and Ancient Semitic religion. Main articles: Persecution of Jews , Antisemitism , and History of antisemitism.

Main article: Hasidic Judaism. Main articles: Haskalah and Jewish religious movements. Main article: Christianity and Judaism.

See also: Christianity and antisemitism and Christian—Jewish reconciliation. Main article: Islam and Judaism. Judaism portal Religion portal.

Retrieved 19 November In Fred Skolnik ed. Encyclopaedia Judaica. Judaism, the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jews.

Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 22 November World Jewish Population, Report. Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 20 September Daniel J.

The Demographics of Jewish Religious Identification". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 31 October Encyclopedia Britannica.

Retrieved 22 August History of Judaism. The Evolving World. Harvard University Press. Markus Wiener Publishers. Zeitlin The Historical Muhammad.

Medding, Values, interests and identity: Jews and politics in a changing world , Volume 11 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press, , p.

Retrieved 8 August Understanding Genesis. Schocken Books. The Blackwell companion to Judaism. No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations.

I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you.

The whole land of Canaan, where you are now an alien, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God;" Gen.

Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring, all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me.

New York: Bloch Publishing Company. For example: King Solomon's "wives turned away his heart after other gods…[and he] did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD" elaborated in 1 Melachim —10 ; King Ahab "went and served Baal, and worshiped him…And Ahab made the Asherah [a pagan place of worship]; and Ahab did yet more to provoke the LORD, the God of Israel, than all the kings of Israel that were before him" 1 Melachim —33 ; the prophet Isaiah condemns the people who "prepare a table for [the idol] Fortune, and that offer mingled wine in full measure unto [the idol] Destiny" Yeshaiahu — The Jewish roots of Christological monotheism: papers from the St.

Andrews conference on the historical origins of the worship of Jesus. Retrieved 19 November — via ResearchGate. My Jewish Learning.

Normative Judaism? Jews, Judaism and Jewish Identity. Gorgias press. Alfacher, Rosh Amanah. However if he rejects one of these fundamentals he leaves the nation and is a denier of the fundamentals and is called a heretic, a denier, etc.

Aish HaTorah. Eisenberg The JPS guide to Jewish traditions. Jewish Publication Society. The concept of "dogma" is…not a basic idea in Judaism.

Mechon Mamre. The closest that anyone has ever come to creating a widely accepted list of Jewish beliefs is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith.

Archived from the original on 18 September The word " emunah " has been translated incorrectly by the King James Bible as merely "belief" or "faith", when in actuality, it means conviction , which is a much more emphatic knowledge of God based on experience.

San Translation available here [1]. Textual Analysis. Filozofia kultury. Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations in America.

Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 5 June The AishDas Society. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company.

InterVarsity Press. A radical Jew: Paul and the politics of identity. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Retrieved 15 June Paul was motivated by a Hellenistic desire for the One, which among other things produced an ideal of a universal human essence, beyond difference and hierarchy.

This universal humanity, however, was predicated and still is on the dualism of the flesh and the spirit, such that while the body is particular, marked through practice as Jew or Greek, and through anatomy as male or female, the spirit is universal.

Paul did not, however, reject the body—as did, for instance, the gnostics—but rather promoted a system whereby the body had its place, albeit subordinated to the spirit.

Paul's anthropological dualism was matched by a hermeneutical dualism as well. Just as the human being is divided into a fleshy and a spiritual component, so also is language itself.

It is composed of outer, material signs and inner, spiritual significations. When this is applied to the religious system that Paul inherited, the physical, fleshy signs of the Torah, of historical Judaism, are re-interpreted as symbols of that which Paul takes to be universal requirements and possibilities for humanity.

Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension with one another.

Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 6 October Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 22 October Contemporary American Reform Responsa. Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 24 December Birth, Death, and Femininity: Philosophies of Embodiment.

Indiana University Press. A Modern Approach to a Living Halachah. Masorti World. Archived from the original on 13 July The Torah is an emanation of God…This conception does not mean, for us, that the process of revelation consisted of dictation by God.

We therefore understand this term as a metaphor to mean that the Torah is divine and that it reflects God's will. Retrieved 15 May Jerusalem Post.

Judaism It is also the most quintessentially "treif" of animals, with its name being nearly synonymous with non-kosher…Although far from alone in the litany of non-kosher animals, the pig seems to stand in a class of its own.

Archived from the original on 6 June Archived from the original PDF on 22 December Lichtenshtein M. Archived from the original on 17 March Women and water: menstruation in Jewish life and law.

Brandeis University Press. Jewish Encyclopedia. Karesh; Mitchell M. Hurvitz Encyclopedia of Judaism. Infobase Publishing.

The Sadducees disappeared when the second Temple was destroyed in the year 70 C. E and Pharisaic Judaism became the preeminent Jewish sect.

History, religion, and antisemitism. University of California Press. How and Why Did Hasidism Spread? The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original PDF on 9 January Retrieved 1 January Cambridge University Press.

After the evil: Christianity and Judaism in the shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford University Press, On Being a Christian.

Doubleday, Garden City, N. First published ; this Bantam edition , p. Heinemann Mandarin. Heroes of the Holocaust. Twenty-First Century Books.

Retrieved 14 January Some groups that are known to have helped Jews were religious in nature. One of these was the Confessing Church, a Protestant denomination formed in May , the year after Hitler became chancellor of Germany.

One of its goals was to repeal the Nazi law "which required that the civil service would be purged of all those who were either Jewish or of partly Jewish descent.

Much of their work has gone unrecognized, but two who will never forget them are Max Krakauer and his wife. Sheltered in sixty-six houses and helped by more than eighty individuals who belonged to the Confessing Church, they owe them their lives.

German Catholic churches went out of their way to protect Catholics of Jewish ancestry. He publicly denounced the Nazi slaughter of Jews and actually succeeded in having the problem halted for a short time.

Manchester University Press. Middle East Forum. Retrieved on 28 July Middle East Quarterly. The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism".

In Gallagher, Eugene V. Michael eds. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America.

In the late s and s, both Jews and Christians in the United States were surprised to see the rise of a vigorous movement of Jewish Christians or Christian Jews.

The Rise of Messianic Judaism. In the first phase of the movement, during the early and mids, Jewish converts to Christianity established several congregations at their own initiative.

Unlike the previous communities of Jewish Christians, Messianic Jewish congregations were largely independent of control from missionary societies or Christian denominations, even though they still wanted the acceptance of the larger evangelical community.

Encyclopedia of Protestantism. While Christianity started in the first century of the Common Era as a Jewish group, it quickly separated from Judaism and claimed to replace it; ever since the relationship between the two traditions has often been strained.

But in the twentieth century groups of young Jews claimed that they had overcome the historical differences between the two religions and amalgamated Jewish identity and customs with the Christian faith.

When the term resurfaced in Israel in the s and s, it designated all Jews who accepted Christianity in its Protestant evangelical form. Missionaries such as the Southern Baptist Robert Lindsey noted that for Israeli Jews, the term nozrim , "Christians" in Hebrew, meant, almost automatically, an alien, hostile religion.

Because such a term made it nearly impossible to convince Jews that Christianity was their religion, missionaries sought a more neutral term, one that did not arouse negative feelings.

They chose Meshichyim , Messianic, to overcome the suspicion and antagonism of the term nozrim. Meshichyim as a term also had the advantage of emphasizing messianism as a major component of the Christian evangelical belief that the missions and communities of Jewish converts to Christianity propagated.

It conveyed the sense of a new, innovative religion rather that [ sic ] an old, unfavorable one. The term was used in reference to those Jews who accepted Jesus as their personal savior, and did not apply to Jews accepting Roman Catholicism who in Israel have called themselves Hebrew Christians.

The term Messianic Judaism was adopted in the United States in the early s by those converts to evangelical Christianity who advocated a more assertive attitude on the part of converts towards their Jewish roots and heritage.

Messianic Judaism. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Retrieved 10 August Evangelism of the Jewish people is thus at the heart of the Messianic movement.

Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews in America, — Messianic Judaism, although it advocated the idea of an independent movement of Jewish converts, remained the offspring of the missionary movement, and the ties would never be broken.

In Israel, it is also used for agricultural and civil purposes, alongside the Gregorian calendar. Jewish time reckoning is lunisolar, which means that the calendar keeps in sync with the natural cycles of both the Sun and the Moon.

Featuring a body of complex regulations, exceptions, and mathematical rules, it is also designed to satisfy a number of requirements conveyed in the Jewish Holy Scripture.

The Hebrew calendar is a comparatively imprecise system in terms of reflecting the duration of a solar year , which is the time it takes Earth to complete a full orbit around the Sun.

In comparison with the timing of the astronomical seasons , it is off by 1 day every years. Regular common years have 12 months with a total of days.

Leap years have 13 months and are days long. Months with uneven numbers usually have 30 days, while months with even numbers have 29 days.

These alterations are designed to prevent Rosh Hashana and other holidays from falling on certain days of the week. In practice, a day is added to the 8th month Marcheshvan or subtracted from the 9th month Kislev.

In civil contexts, a new year in the Jewish calendar begins on Rosh Hashana on Tishrei 1. However, for religious purposes, the year begins on Nisan 1.

Months in the Gregorian calendar. According to Hebrew time reckoning we are now in the 6th millennium.

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Basic memberships only allow you to sign up, read articles, have access to events, and get screened. Something we really like about JRetroMatch is that you can read and learn all about the dating service before signing up.

Rather than immediately asking for personal information, JRetroMatch lets potential customers read an "About Us" section, learn how the dating site works, learn about membership plans, success rates, and read news articles.

It is important to know about the business that is asking you to buy into their services before handing over information or money, and we like that JRetroMatch understands this.

JRetroMatch boasts that they have had over 3, engagements come from their online database, which is impressive. Their platform is unique and much more personal than the other dating sites we have used.

For the price, it is a really good deal to be able to have a personal matchmaker helping you along your dating journey.

We really like the way JRetroMatch performs their services and recommend giving them a try! Since its launch in , JDate has been connecting Jewish singles around the globe.

They have facilitated thousands of friendships, romances, engagements, and marriages. Jdate boasts that based on statistics in , they are responsible for more marriages than all other dating sites combined.

With over , members, JDate is a popular online Jewish dating site where members are likely to find individuals they match with. Members can create free profiles on JDate and browse the profiles of others.

However, much like other online dating sites, you can only connect with potential partners if you are paying for a subscription.

When compared to other Jewish dating sites, JDate is more expensive than most. The paid membership includes unlimited messaging with members, member spotlights, and notifications to members when you've read their messages.

Some unique features of JDate include a secret admirer feature, kibitz corner, events, and JLife magazine. The secret admirer function lets members mark the profiles they like and JDate will help them figure out if that member is interested back by letting them select a heart for "yes", a wavy line for "maybe later", or an "x" if not interested.

Kidbitz corner is a feature where users answer daily questions and see what others have answered as an easy way to make conversation. Offline events let JDate members meet in person and the JLife magazine offers success stories and dating tips from couples in Jewish marriages.

It only takes minutes to sign up for JDate. Users report that they like the comprehensive profiles of all the members. Users are asked to add things to their profile like height, educational background, employment status, hobbies, interests, and photos.

A chat feature allows members to interact with other users they are interested in based on their profiles. Although JDate is a little on the pricey side, we think it is a great option for Jewish singles.

The big member database is one of the best things about JDate because it gives users a better chance of meeting someone they really connect with.

For Jewish or non-Jewish singles looking for a Jewish partner, JDate is one of the top online dating sites to try out. Eharmony boasts that every 14 minutes, someone finds love on their platform.

They have been connecting singles since Eharmony was not created specifically for matchmaking in the Jewish community, but simply to match all types of couples based on their set criteria.

The compatibility quiz taken at the time of sign-up asks for information regarding who you would like to date, so this can be adjusted to reflect the desire to find a Jewish partner.

To sign up for a profile at eharmony, you will choose whether you are a man or woman looking to date either a man or woman.

Next you'll provide your email address and then begin a minute compatibility quiz. The results of this quiz will make up your personality profile, which is the basis for matches on eharmony's site.

The quiz will ask things about your social preferences, relationship style, lifestyle habits, interests, and take you through a series of abstract images to choose from.

Making it all the way through the quiz means you're probably pretty serious about using eharmony's services and hopefully weeds out those who aren't.

Pricing at eharmony comes in three package options. This site is a bit more expensive than some others we have reviewed, so we suggest learning as much about them as possible before deciding to sign up.

They recently had a court settlement that the BBB warns of. The lawsuit was over issues with the subscription renewal policy and difficulties cancelling memberships.

Some have complained that it is confusing and difficult to end eharmony's services because you only have a 3-day window to do so.

Others complain that they receive very few matches from the site and that some accounts that show up appear to be bots, making it look like there are more users on the site than there actually are.

Eharmony has an extensive sign-up process, which could be a good thing because we think it makes people take the process more seriously. Many people looking to find a partner online complain that it is hard to identify other members looking for a long-term commitment.

Hopefully eharmony weeds some of these people out. However, we wish there was better user feedback about their services. There are so many online dating options these days that, as time goes on, it is possible eharmony is losing the membership base it once had, therefore resorting to bots and other gimmicks on their site that trick people into paying more money for their services.

We feel that eharmony is an average online dating site, and our rating reflects that. JSingles has an unappealing website that looks as if it has not been updated since the early s.

If companies are wanting to continue appealing to new members as an online dating site, it is important to keep up with the trends and design of the times.

We worry that many people will land on JSingles' website and be turned off quickly, making it so their membership numbers aren't very high.

It is not a requirement to be Jewish in order to use JSingles. Because of this, users who are looking for a Jewish partner will have to do some weeding out as far as who is serious about being on the website and their background.

Browsing the different profiles makes us think that there are not only fake accounts on this site, but also fake messages sent to users, making it confusing to know who is really reaching out.

The best way to describe the experience of JSingles is with the word "clickbait". To become a premium member of JSingles, a "free" trial period is an option to test out their site.

We don't like that they charge people who use the trial period more every month than those who don't. It is nearly impossible to find feedback regarding people's personal experiences using JSingles.

They do not have a Better Business Bureau profile and very little information about them is available outside of their actual website.

We highly doubt they have a strong, successful membership base at JSingles. To avoid wasting time and money, we recommend using an online dating site other than JSingles.

Match Group, LLC has been in business for over 20 years providing online dating services. We will say upfront that they are being sued by the Federal Trade Commission for using fake love interest advertisements to trick hundreds of thousands of consumers into purchasing subscriptions to Match.

Other issues include recurring charges to customer accounts, false advertising, and deceptive cancelation practices. To begin the signup process, you are asked to choose whether you are a woman seeking a man, a man seeking a woman, a man seeking a man, or a woman seeking a woman.

You'll choose the age range of individuals you are seeking and your zip code. After submitting this information, Match will ask for an email address and password for account creation along with your birthday.

The cost to use Match's services depends on the length of time you want to have full access to the platform. It is advertised as a free service, but you'll need to pay to be able to actually match with and view the full profiles of other members.

The longer you choose to be a member, the bigger the monthly discount you get. Again, customers have reported that it is very difficult to cancel your subscription and sometimes multiple charges are put on customer's accounts, so this is something to be aware of.

As you scroll through the photos of members, it shows how recently the individual was active on the site, how many other photos are available for viewing, and what their username is.

This lets members know who is actively using Match so you might have a better chance of getting a response from them.

However, we can't say for sure that these details are accurate. The people of Israel then told Samuel the prophet that they needed to be governed by a permanent king, and Samuel appointed Saul to be their King.

When the people pressured Saul into going against a command conveyed to him by Samuel, God told Samuel to appoint David in his stead.

Once King David was established, he told the prophet Nathan that he would like to build a permanent temple, and as a reward for his actions, God promised David that he would allow his son, Solomon , to build the First Temple and the throne would never depart from his children.

Rabbinic tradition holds that the details and interpretation of the law, which are called the Oral Torah or oral law , were originally an unwritten tradition based upon what God told Moses on Mount Sinai.

However, as the persecutions of the Jews increased and the details were in danger of being forgotten, these oral laws were recorded by Rabbi Judah HaNasi Judah the Prince in the Mishnah , redacted circa CE.

The Talmud was a compilation of both the Mishnah and the Gemara , rabbinic commentaries redacted over the next three centuries. The Gemara originated in two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Palestine and Babylonia.

The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud. It was compiled sometime during the 4th century in Palestine. According to critical scholars , the Torah consists of inconsistent texts edited together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts.

After Solomon's reign, the nation split into two kingdoms, the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judah in the south.

The Kingdom of Judah continued as an independent state until it was conquered by a Babylonian army in the early 6th century BCE, destroying the First Temple that was at the center of ancient Jewish worship.

The Judean elite was exiled to Babylonia and this is regarded as the first Jewish Diaspora. Later many of them returned to their homeland after the subsequent conquest of Babylonia by the Persians seventy years later, a period known as the Babylonian Captivity.

A new Second Temple was constructed, and old religious practices were resumed. During the early years of the Second Temple, the highest religious authority was a council known as the Great Assembly, led by Ezra of the Book of Ezra.

Among other accomplishments of the Great Assembly, the last books of the Bible were written at this time and the canon sealed.

Hadrian built a pagan idol on the Temple grounds and prohibited circumcision; these acts of ethnocide provoked the Bar Kokhba revolt — CE after which the Romans banned the study of the Torah and the celebration of Jewish holidays, and forcibly removed virtually all Jews from Judea.

In CE, however, Jews were granted Roman citizenship and Judaism was recognized as a religio licita "legitimate religion" until the rise of Gnosticism and Early Christianity in the fourth century.

Following the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews, Jewish worship stopped being centrally organized around the Temple, prayer took the place of sacrifice, and worship was rebuilt around the community represented by a minimum of ten adult men and the establishment of the authority of rabbis who acted as teachers and leaders of individual communities see Jewish diaspora.

After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, these sects vanished. The Sadducees rejected the divine inspiration of the Prophets and the Writings , relying only on the Torah as divinely inspired.

Consequently, a number of other core tenets of the Pharisees' belief system which became the basis for modern Judaism , were also dismissed by the Sadducees.

The Samaritans practiced a similar religion, which is traditionally considered separate from Judaism. Like the Sadducees who relied only on the Torah, some Jews in the 8th and 9th centuries rejected the authority and divine inspiration of the oral law as recorded in the Mishnah and developed by later rabbis in the two Talmuds , relying instead only upon the Tanakh.

These included the Isunians, the Yudganites, the Malikites , and others. They soon developed oral traditions of their own, which differed from the rabbinic traditions, and eventually formed the Karaite sect.

Karaites exist in small numbers today, mostly living in Israel. Rabbinical and Karaite Jews each hold that the others are Jews, but that the other faith is erroneous.

Many of these groups have developed differences in their prayers, traditions and accepted canons; however, these distinctions are mainly the result of their being formed at some cultural distance from normative rabbinic Judaism, rather than based on any doctrinal dispute.

Antisemitism arose during the Middle Ages , in the form of persecutions, pogroms , forced conversions , expulsions, social restrictions and ghettoization.

This was different in quality from the repressions of Jews which had occurred in ancient times. Ancient repressions were politically motivated and Jews were treated the same as members of other ethnic groups.

With the rise of the Churches, the main motive for attacks on Jews changed from politics to religion and the religious motive for such attacks was specifically derived from Christian views about Jews and Judaism.

It originated in a time of persecution of the Jewish people when European Jews had turned inward to Talmud study; many felt that most expressions of Jewish life had become too "academic", and that they no longer had any emphasis on spirituality or joy.

Its adherents favored small and informal gatherings called Shtiebel , which, in contrast to a traditional synagogue, could be used both as a place of worship and for celebrations involving dancing, eating, and socializing.

Unlike other religions, which typically expanded through word of mouth or by use of print, Hasidism spread largely owing to Tzadiks , who used their influence to encourage others to follow the movement.

Hasidism appealed to many Europeans because it was easy to learn, did not require full immediate commitment, and presented a compelling spectacle.

Waves of Jewish immigration in the s carried it to the United States. The movement itself claims to be nothing new, but a refreshment of original Judaism.

As some have put it: "they merely re-emphasized that which the generations had lost". Nevertheless, early on there was a serious schism between Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jews.

European Jews who rejected the Hasidic movement were dubbed by the Hasidim as Misnagdim , lit. Some of the reasons for the rejection of Hasidic Judaism were the exuberance of Hasidic worship, its deviation from tradition in ascribing infallibility and miracles to their leaders, and the concern that it might become a messianic sect.

Over time differences between the Hasidim and their opponents have slowly diminished and both groups are now considered part of Haredi Judaism.

In the late 18th century CE, Europe was swept by a group of intellectual, social and political movements known as the Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment led to reductions in the European laws that prohibited Jews to interact with the wider secular world, thus allowing Jews access to secular education and experience.

A parallel Jewish movement, Haskalah or the "Jewish Enlightenment", began, especially in Central Europe and Western Europe, in response to both the Enlightenment and these new freedoms.

It placed an emphasis on integration with secular society and a pursuit of non-religious knowledge through reason. With the promise of political emancipation, many Jews saw no reason to continue to observe Jewish law and increasing numbers of Jews assimilated into Christian Europe.

Modern religious movements of Judaism all formed in reaction to this trend. In Central Europe, followed by Great Britain and the United States, Reform or Liberal Judaism developed, relaxing legal obligations especially those that limited Jewish relations with non-Jews , emulating Protestant decorum in prayer, and emphasizing the ethical values of Judaism's Prophetic tradition.

Modern Orthodox Judaism developed in reaction to Reform Judaism, by leaders who argued that Jews could participate in public life as citizens equal to Christians while maintaining the observance of Jewish law.

Meanwhile, in the United States, wealthy Reform Jews helped European scholars, who were Orthodox in practice but critical and skeptical in their study of the Bible and Talmud, to establish a seminary to train rabbis for immigrants from Eastern Europe.

These left-wing Orthodox rabbis were joined by right-wing Reform rabbis who felt that Jewish law should not be entirely abandoned, to form the Conservative movement.

After massive movements of Jews following The Holocaust and the creation of the state of Israel , these movements have competed for followers from among traditional Jews in or from other countries.

Jewish religious practice varies widely through all levels of observance. According to the edition of the National Jewish Population Survey , in the United States' Jewish community—the world's second largest—4.

Birth rates for American Jews have dropped from 2. Due to intermarriage and low birth rates, the Jewish population in the US shrank from 5. This is indicative of the general population trends among the Jewish community in the Diaspora , but a focus on total population obscures growth trends in some denominations and communities, such as Haredi Judaism.

The Baal teshuva movement is a movement of Jews who have "returned" to religion or become more observant. Christianity was originally a sect of Second Temple Judaism , but the two religions diverged in the first century.

The differences between Christianity and Judaism originally centered on whether Jesus was the Jewish Messiah but eventually became irreconcilable.

Major differences between the two faiths include the nature of the Messiah, of atonement and sin , the status of God's commandments to Israel, and perhaps most significantly of the nature of God himself.

Due to these differences, Judaism traditionally regards Christianity as Shituf or worship of the God of Israel which is not monotheistic.

Christianity has traditionally regarded Judaism as obsolete with the invention of Christianity and Jews as a people replaced by the Church, though a Christian belief in dual-covenant theology emerged as a phenomenon following Christian reflection on how their theology influenced the Nazi Holocaust.

We decree that no Christian shall use violence to force them to be baptized, so long as they are unwilling and refuse. Until their emancipation in the late 18th and the 19th century, Jews in Christian lands were subject to humiliating legal restrictions and limitations.

They included provisions requiring Jews to wear specific and identifying clothing such as the Jewish hat and the yellow badge , restricting Jews to certain cities and towns or in certain parts of towns ghettos , and forbidding Jews to enter certain trades for example selling new clothes in medieval Sweden.

Disabilities also included special taxes levied on Jews, exclusion from public life, restraints on the performance of religious ceremonies, and linguistic censorship.

Some countries went even further and completely expelled Jews, for example, England in Jews were readmitted in and Spain in readmitted in The first Jewish settlers in North America arrived in the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam in ; they were forbidden to hold public office, open a retail shop, or establish a synagogue.

When the colony was seized by the British in Jewish rights remained unchanged, but by Asser Levy was the first Jew to serve on a jury in North America.

Emancipation of the Jews in the United Kingdom was achieved in after an almost year struggle championed by Isaac Lyon Goldsmid [] with the ability of Jews to sit in parliament with the passing of the Jews Relief Act The newly created German Empire in abolished Jewish disabilities in Germany, which were reinstated in the Nuremberg Laws in Jewish life in Christian lands was marked by frequent blood libels , expulsions, forced conversions and massacres.

Religious prejudice was an underlying source against Jews in Europe. Christian rhetoric and antipathy towards Jews developed in the early years of Christianity and was reinforced by ever increasing anti-Jewish measures over the ensuing centuries.

The action taken by Christians against Jews included acts of violence, and murder culminating in the Holocaust.

Pope John Paul II and the Catholic Church have "upheld the Church's acceptance of the continuing and permanent election of the Jewish people" as well as a reaffirmation of the covenant between God and the Jews.

Both Judaism and Islam track their origins from the patriarch Abraham , and they are therefore considered Abrahamic religions.

In both Jewish and Muslim tradition, the Jewish and Arab peoples are descended from the two sons of Abraham— Isaac and Ishmael , respectively. While both religions are monotheistic and share many commonalities, they differ based on the fact that Jews do not consider Jesus or Muhammad to be prophets.

The religions' adherents have interacted with each other since the 7th century when Islam originated and spread in the Arabian peninsula. Non-Muslim monotheists living in these countries, including Jews, were known as dhimmis.

Dhimmis were allowed to practice their own religions and administer their own internal affairs, but they were subject to certain restrictions that were not imposed on Muslims.

For example, dhimmis in some countries were required to wear distinctive clothing , a practice not found in either the Qur'an or the hadiths but invented in early medieval Baghdad and inconsistently enforced.

At times, Jews were also restricted in their choice of residence—in Morocco , for example, Jews were confined to walled quarters mellahs beginning in the 15th century and increasingly since the early 19th century.

In the midth century, Jews were expelled from nearly all of the Arab countries. Today, antisemitic themes including Holocaust denial have become commonplace in the propaganda of Islamic movements such as Hizbullah and Hamas , in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iran , and even in the newspapers and other publications of Refah Partisi.

There are some movements that combine elements of Judaism with those of other religions. The most well-known of these is Messianic Judaism , a religious movement, which arose in the s, [] [] [] [] that incorporates elements of Judaism with the tenets of Christianity.

Other examples of syncretism include Semitic neopaganism , a loosely organized sect which incorporates pagan or Wiccan beliefs with some Jewish religious practices; Jewish Buddhists , another loosely organized group that incorporates elements of Asian spirituality in their faith; and some Renewal Jews who borrow freely and openly from Buddhism , Sufism , Native American religions, and other faiths.

The Kabbalah Centre , which employs teachers from multiple religions, is a New Age movement that claims to popularize the kabbalah , part of the Jewish esoteric tradition.

See also Torah database for links to more Judaism e-texts. Text study projects at Wikisource. In many instances, the Hebrew versions of these projects are more fully developed than the English.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Jewish religion. For consideration of ethnic, historic and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity, see Jews.

The ethnic religion of the Jewish people. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Important figures. Religious roles. Culture and education.

Ritual objects. Major holidays. Other religions. Related topics. Main article: Jewish principles of faith.

I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is One, and that there is no unity in any manner like His, and that He alone is our God, who was, and is, and will be.

I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, has no body, and that He is free from all the properties of matter, and that there can be no physical comparison to Him whatsoever.

I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, is the first and the last. I believe with perfect faith that to the Creator, Blessed be His Name, and to Him alone, it is right to pray, and that it is not right to pray to any being besides Him.

I believe with perfect faith that all the words of the prophets are true. I believe with perfect faith that the prophecy of Moses our teacher, peace be upon him , was true, and that he was the chief of the prophets, both those who preceded him and those who followed him.

I believe with perfect faith that the entire Torah that is now in our possession is the same that was given to Moses our teacher, peace be upon him.

I believe with perfect faith that this Torah will not be exchanged and that there will never be any other Torah from the Creator, Blessed be His Name.

I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, knows all the deeds of human beings and all their thoughts, as it is written, "Who fashioned the hearts of them all, Who comprehends all their actions" Psalms I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, Blessed be His Name, rewards those who keep His commandments and punishes those that transgress them.

I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah ; and even though he may tarry, nonetheless, I wait every day for his coming. I believe with perfect faith that there will be a revival of the dead at the time when it shall please the Creator, Blessed be His name, and His mention shall be exalted for ever and ever.

Main article: Halakha. Main article: Jewish philosophy. A law that clearly expresses the purpose it was meant to serve will also apply to other situations where the identical purpose may be served.

When a general rule is followed by illustrative particulars, only those particulars are to be embraced by it. A law that begins with specifying particular cases, and then proceeds to an all-embracing generalization, is to be applied to particulars cases not specified but logically falling into the same generalization.

A law that begins with a generalization as to its intended applications, then continues with the specification of particular cases, and then concludes with a restatement of the generalization, can be applied only to the particular cases specified.

The rules about a generalization being followed or preceded by specifying particulars rules 4 and 5 will not apply if it is apparent that the specification of the particular cases or the statement of the generalization is meant purely for achieving a greater clarity of language.

A particular case already covered in a generalization that is nevertheless treated separately suggests that the same particularized treatment be applied to all other cases which are covered in that generalization.

A penalty specified for a general category of wrongdoing is not to be automatically applied to a particular case that is withdrawn from the general rule to be specifically prohibited, but without any mention of the penalty.

A general prohibition followed by a specified penalty may be followed by a particular case, normally included in the generalization, with a modification in the penalty, either toward easing it or making it more severe.

A case logically falling into a general law but treated separately remains outside the provisions of the general law except in those instances where it is specifically included in them.

Obscurities in Biblical texts may be cleared up from the immediate context or from subsequently occurring passages Contradictions in Biblical passages may be removed through the mediation of other passages.

Main article: Who is a Jew? Main article: Jewish population by country. Main article: Jewish religious movements. Main article: Religion in Israel.

Main article: Jewish ethics. Main article: Jewish services. Further information: Jewish religious clothing , kippah , tzitzit , and tefillin.

Main article: Jewish holiday. Main article: Shabbat. Main article: Shalosh regalim. Main article: High Holidays. Main article: Purim. Main article: Hanukkah.

Main article: Torah reading. Main article: Synagogue. Main article: Kashrut. Main article: Tumah. Main article: Niddah. Main article: Jewish history.

This section is about the history of Judaism. For the book on Ancient Judaism, see Ancient Judaism book. Main article: Origins of Judaism.

Further information: Ancient Canaanite religion and Ancient Semitic religion. Main articles: Persecution of Jews , Antisemitism , and History of antisemitism.

Main article: Hasidic Judaism. Main articles: Haskalah and Jewish religious movements. Main article: Christianity and Judaism.

See also: Christianity and antisemitism and Christian—Jewish reconciliation. Main article: Islam and Judaism.

Judaism portal Religion portal. Retrieved 19 November In Fred Skolnik ed. Encyclopaedia Judaica. Judaism, the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jews.

Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 22 November World Jewish Population, Report. Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 20 September Daniel J.

The Demographics of Jewish Religious Identification". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 31 October Encyclopedia Britannica.

Retrieved 22 August History of Judaism. The Evolving World. Harvard University Press. Markus Wiener Publishers.

Zeitlin The Historical Muhammad. Medding, Values, interests and identity: Jews and politics in a changing world , Volume 11 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press, , p.

Retrieved 8 August Understanding Genesis. Schocken Books. The Blackwell companion to Judaism. No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations.

I will make you very fruitful; I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you.

The whole land of Canaan, where you are now an alien, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you; and I will be their God;" Gen.

Your descendants will take possession of the cities of their enemies, and through your offspring, all nations on earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed me.

New York: Bloch Publishing Company. For example: King Solomon's "wives turned away his heart after other gods…[and he] did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD" elaborated in 1 Melachim —10 ; King Ahab "went and served Baal, and worshiped him…And Ahab made the Asherah [a pagan place of worship]; and Ahab did yet more to provoke the LORD, the God of Israel, than all the kings of Israel that were before him" 1 Melachim —33 ; the prophet Isaiah condemns the people who "prepare a table for [the idol] Fortune, and that offer mingled wine in full measure unto [the idol] Destiny" Yeshaiahu — The Jewish roots of Christological monotheism: papers from the St.

Andrews conference on the historical origins of the worship of Jesus. Retrieved 19 November — via ResearchGate. My Jewish Learning.

Normative Judaism? Jews, Judaism and Jewish Identity. Gorgias press. Alfacher, Rosh Amanah. However if he rejects one of these fundamentals he leaves the nation and is a denier of the fundamentals and is called a heretic, a denier, etc.

Aish HaTorah. Eisenberg The JPS guide to Jewish traditions. Jewish Publication Society. The concept of "dogma" is…not a basic idea in Judaism.

Mechon Mamre. The closest that anyone has ever come to creating a widely accepted list of Jewish beliefs is Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith.

Archived from the original on 18 September The word " emunah " has been translated incorrectly by the King James Bible as merely "belief" or "faith", when in actuality, it means conviction , which is a much more emphatic knowledge of God based on experience.

San Translation available here [1]. Textual Analysis. Filozofia kultury. Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations in America.

Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 5 June The AishDas Society. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. InterVarsity Press.

A radical Jew: Paul and the politics of identity. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved 15 June Paul was motivated by a Hellenistic desire for the One, which among other things produced an ideal of a universal human essence, beyond difference and hierarchy.

This universal humanity, however, was predicated and still is on the dualism of the flesh and the spirit, such that while the body is particular, marked through practice as Jew or Greek, and through anatomy as male or female, the spirit is universal.

Paul did not, however, reject the body—as did, for instance, the gnostics—but rather promoted a system whereby the body had its place, albeit subordinated to the spirit.

Paul's anthropological dualism was matched by a hermeneutical dualism as well. Just as the human being is divided into a fleshy and a spiritual component, so also is language itself.

It is composed of outer, material signs and inner, spiritual significations. When this is applied to the religious system that Paul inherited, the physical, fleshy signs of the Torah, of historical Judaism, are re-interpreted as symbols of that which Paul takes to be universal requirements and possibilities for humanity.

Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Jewishness disrupts the very categories of identity, because it is not national, not genealogical, not religious, but all of these, in dialectical tension with one another.

Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 6 October Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 22 October Contemporary American Reform Responsa. Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 18 October Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 24 December Birth, Death, and Femininity: Philosophies of Embodiment.

Indiana University Press. A Modern Approach to a Living Halachah. Masorti World. Archived from the original on 13 July The Torah is an emanation of God…This conception does not mean, for us, that the process of revelation consisted of dictation by God.

We therefore understand this term as a metaphor to mean that the Torah is divine and that it reflects God's will.

Retrieved 15 May Jerusalem Post. Judaism It is also the most quintessentially "treif" of animals, with its name being nearly synonymous with non-kosher…Although far from alone in the litany of non-kosher animals, the pig seems to stand in a class of its own.

Archived from the original on 6 June Archived from the original PDF on 22 December Lichtenshtein M. Archived from the original on 17 March Women and water: menstruation in Jewish life and law.

Brandeis University Press. Jewish Encyclopedia. Karesh; Mitchell M. Hurvitz Encyclopedia of Judaism. Infobase Publishing.

The Sadducees disappeared when the second Temple was destroyed in the year 70 C. E and Pharisaic Judaism became the preeminent Jewish sect. History, religion, and antisemitism.

University of California Press. How and Why Did Hasidism Spread? The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original PDF on 9 January Retrieved 1 January Cambridge University Press.

After the evil: Christianity and Judaism in the shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford University Press, On Being a Christian. Doubleday, Garden City, N.

First published ; this Bantam edition , p. Heinemann Mandarin. Heroes of the Holocaust. Twenty-First Century Books. Retrieved 14 January Some groups that are known to have helped Jews were religious in nature.

One of these was the Confessing Church, a Protestant denomination formed in May , the year after Hitler became chancellor of Germany.

One of its goals was to repeal the Nazi law "which required that the civil service would be purged of all those who were either Jewish or of partly Jewish descent.

Much of their work has gone unrecognized, but two who will never forget them are Max Krakauer and his wife.

Sheltered in sixty-six houses and helped by more than eighty individuals who belonged to the Confessing Church, they owe them their lives.

German Catholic churches went out of their way to protect Catholics of Jewish ancestry. He publicly denounced the Nazi slaughter of Jews and actually succeeded in having the problem halted for a short time.

Manchester University Press. Middle East Forum. Retrieved on 28 July Middle East Quarterly. The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism".

In Gallagher, Eugene V. Michael eds. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America.

In the late s and s, both Jews and Christians in the United States were surprised to see the rise of a vigorous movement of Jewish Christians or Christian Jews.

The Rise of Messianic Judaism. In the first phase of the movement, during the early and mids, Jewish converts to Christianity established several congregations at their own initiative.

Unlike the previous communities of Jewish Christians, Messianic Jewish congregations were largely independent of control from missionary societies or Christian denominations, even though they still wanted the acceptance of the larger evangelical community.

Encyclopedia of Protestantism. While Christianity started in the first century of the Common Era as a Jewish group, it quickly separated from Judaism and claimed to replace it; ever since the relationship between the two traditions has often been strained.

But in the twentieth century groups of young Jews claimed that they had overcome the historical differences between the two religions and amalgamated Jewish identity and customs with the Christian faith.

When the term resurfaced in Israel in the s and s, it designated all Jews who accepted Christianity in its Protestant evangelical form.

Missionaries such as the Southern Baptist Robert Lindsey noted that for Israeli Jews, the term nozrim , "Christians" in Hebrew, meant, almost automatically, an alien, hostile religion.

Because such a term made it nearly impossible to convince Jews that Christianity was their religion, missionaries sought a more neutral term, one that did not arouse negative feelings.

They chose Meshichyim , Messianic, to overcome the suspicion and antagonism of the term nozrim. Meshichyim as a term also had the advantage of emphasizing messianism as a major component of the Christian evangelical belief that the missions and communities of Jewish converts to Christianity propagated.

It conveyed the sense of a new, innovative religion rather that [ sic ] an old, unfavorable one. The term was used in reference to those Jews who accepted Jesus as their personal savior, and did not apply to Jews accepting Roman Catholicism who in Israel have called themselves Hebrew Christians.

The term Messianic Judaism was adopted in the United States in the early s by those converts to evangelical Christianity who advocated a more assertive attitude on the part of converts towards their Jewish roots and heritage.

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